DyDomain - Particles: Granular

The Dyverso domain holds the particles, while the emitter nodes represent the point of emission.

 

 

Type

There are eight different types of fluids and materials. All types, except "Dumb", are → GPU-accelerated:

  • "Dumb” particles are often used for spray or foam. These particles cannot react with each other and do not have the characteristic fluid properties, but they are simulated very fast.
  • "Liquid - SPH" is a very accurate fluid solver.
  • "Liquid - PBD" is a very fast fluid type (faster than “Liquid - SPH”).
  • "Granular" is suitable for substances like sand or snow.
  • "Viscous" fluids are suited for substances like lava, toothpaste, caramel, syrup, or mud.
  • "Viscoelastic" is the choice of materials such as rubber, caoutchouc, silicone, or "memory foam".
  • "Rigid" connects the particles with more or less rigid joints. This particle type requires at least one object instead of an emitter and you have to follow a specific → workflow.
  • "Elastic" lets you simulate jelly-like substances. This particle type requires at least one object instead of an emitter  and you have to follow a specific → workflow.

Different materials are partially able to interact: SPH + SPH + Granular (+ Rigid with limitations), PBD + PBD + Granular (+ Rigid with limitations).

Resolution

With this setting you can change the amount of particles, “Resolution” mainly depends on scene scale and emitter scale, but it also affects the fluid’s mass and therefore depends on “Density”, too:

  • With “Resolution” set to 1.0, a volume of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m filled with 1,000 particles.
  • The parameter accepts any positive value.
Density

This parameter is defined as mass per volume unit and is different for each substance. “Density” does not change the fluid's behaviour, but it is possible to mix fluids from different domains. This way you are able to simulate substances like oil and water. The unit is kilograms per cubic metre. The density of water is 1,000 kg/m3. Avoid very small values close to 0, because they can lead to instabilities.

Interpenetration

Interpenetration simulates the repulsion forces between granular particles. We recommend values ≤ 1. The substeps and iterations settings in RealFlow's → "Simulation Options" influence how this parameter acts on the particles.

Friction

When nearby particles collide they start to slide, "Friction" counteracts this motion until the particles stop (also known as dynamic friction). The substeps and iterations settings in RealFlow's → "Simulation Options" influence how this parameter acts on the particles.

Static friction

"Static friction" acts like a barrier that has to be exceeded in order to make a particle slide. With higher values you are able to create structures like sand piles. The substeps and iterations settings in RealFlow's → "Simulation Options" influence how this parameter acts on the particles.

Compactation

This parameter adds a kind of friction that helps to get a more fragmented, block-like behaviour when the granular material is breaking.

Cohesion

"Cohesion" is a force of attraction between nearby granular particles. Values greater than zero support the appearance of chunks, similar to snow or wet sand. Any value ≥ 0 is accepted. The substeps and iterations settings in RealFlow's → "Simulation Options" influence how this parameter acts on the particles.

Roughness

In the real world, granular substances do not have perfectly rounded shapes, but there are irregularities like spikes or edges. This parameter mimics these effects and helps to suppress regular structures. Any value ≥ 0 is accepted.

Stacking

Increase this value to simulate structures like piles. Any positive value ≥ 0 is accepted. The substeps and iterations settings in RealFlow's → "Simulation Options" influence how this parameter acts on the particles.

Damping

Damping smoothens the relative velocities between nearby particles. A small amount of damping helps to stabilize a simulation, while higher values introduce viscosity to the material.

Max particles

Please enter a value to stop emission at a certain amount of particles. "Max particles" is based on the total amount of emitted particles. Let's say you have entered "50,000". If there are currently 1,000 particles in your scene, but you have already deleted 49,000 particles RealFlow will stop the emission. Here you can read how to use this parameter to → stop particle emission.

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